ST-85 Introduction to Buildings' Physics

The Faculty of Architecture / Architecture
3rd Year, sem 1, 2023-2024 | Compulsory Course | Hours/Week: 2C | ECTS Credits: 3
Technical Sciences
Course Leader:
conf. Radu Pană
Teaching language:
Learning outcomes:
General objective of the course:
To understand the complex interrelation between human – architecture – environment to ensure the comfort of the users of designed buildings, from the perspectives of hygrothermal, acoustic, natural lighting, solar exposure, and protection against excessive solar radiation.
Specific objectives:
- To encourage a scientific and responsible approach to the design process.
- To develop the ability to correlate the elements of building physics – hygrothermal, acoustic, lighting, solar exposure – with physiological and psychological aspects, the behavior of specific building compositions in general and in detail, and with the aspects of architectural plasticity.
- To develop the ability to design buildings and spaces that ensure the comfort of users in terms of hygrothermal, acoustic, natural lighting, solar exposure, and solar protection.
- To define, on one hand, the objective and measurable notions that form the basis of physical phenomena in buildings and, on the other hand, the notions of comfort related to different domains in building physics, to ground the approach to architectural design.
- To develop an understanding of the role physical phenomena play in defining the living environment.
Introduction. Complex human-environment-building interaction. Areas analyzed.
Human-building-environment energy exchanges; heat as a form of energy; heat migration paths. Thermophysiology; hygrothermal comfort. Steady-state hygrothermal regime; thermal transfer through opaque and glazed construction elements.
Behavior of construction elements in water vapor diffusion. Continuity of thermal protection of the envelope; thermal bridges. Estimating the overall behavior of the building envelope: global coefficient G; annual thermal balance of the building.
Energy efficiency. Regulations regarding energy consumption. Ways to improve the hygrothermal behavior through architectural design; typical design details for specific nodes. nZEB buildings, passive buildings.
Physical acoustics. Acoustic wave, properties, objective physical quantities. Physiological acoustics, sound perception; sound level; weighting. Spatial acoustics; sound reflection and absorption. Distinction between sound absorption and sound insulation.
Acoustic protection in buildings, against external and internal noises. Acoustic insulation against airborne noises. Insulation against impact noises.
General principles and measures for acoustic protection; specific methodology for achieving the minimum necessary noise protection against airborne and impact noises.
The sun; Earth-Sun relationship: the Earth's actual motion around the Sun; seasons; the Sun's apparent motion; solar coordinates. Solar diagram. Shadow mask: concept, construction. Selective control of solar exposure using the projection diagram and shadow mask.
Natural light; physical properties. Methods for determining natural illumination: analytical method, point nomogram method.
Teaching Method:
Lectures illustrated with digital images (drawings, photographs, movies), organized in PowerPoint presentations.
Summative: written exam consisting of solving specific problems from the studied chapters.
PANĂ, R Fizica construcțiilor. Higrotermica. Insorire și protecție solară - Editura Universitară "Ion Mincu" 2010
STAN, A Fizica Construcțiilor – Partea I (Higrotermica) – breviar UAUIM
*** seria de normative C107 (higrotermică), Buletinul Construcțiilor - 2002, 2005
MICLESCU, S Lumina naturală și lumina artificială în arhitectură – breviar UAUIM
OPREANU, M Fizica Construcțiilor – Partea a doua – breviar UAUIM
OLGYAY & OLGYAY Solar control & shading devices
*** Daylighting in Architecture. A European Reference Book
SMIGELSCHI, M Acustica în arhitectură – breviar UAUIM