SFA-91 Perspective

The Faculty of Architecture / Architecture
1st Year, sem 2, 2021-2022 | Compulsory Course | Hours/Week: 1C+1L | ECTS Credits: 3
Study of Form and Ambience
Course Leader:
lect. Sorana Untanu
Teaching Staff:
lect. dr. arh. Sorana Untanu, asist. dr. arh. Valeria Potenchi, asist. dr. arh. Ioana Avram
Learning outcomes:

Starting from understanding how the human eye works, the main objective of the course is describing the formative elements to the development of vision, ‘thinking in space’ and the construction of the architectural perspective.
The study of perspective is approached through its two aspects:
• the perspective as a tool in design and as visual analysis of the object:
• the perspective as a method of illustrating within the architectural design.
The course does not aim to describe several methods of constructing perspective.



1 Projection system. Classification of perspective.
2 Human sight and the mechanism of perspective.
3 Perspective on vertical picture plane.
4 Drawing of shadows in perspective on the vertical picture plane.
5 The gradient of light and shadow in the distance. Frontal perspective.
6 Computer aided perspective drawing.
7 Rendering of the depth and the intrinsic scale of perspective.

Practical assignments:

1 Mixed method of constructing the perspective.
2 Observation by optical instruments and sketch drawing by hand.
3 Perspective with two vanishing points at 1.80 m.
4 Perspective on the vertical picture plane with “raised horizon line”.
5 Frontal perspective.
6 Computer aided perspective drawing.
7 Perspective with “down horizon line”.

Teaching Method:

Lectures, which will include computer-based projections, simulations on the computer, individual drawing at the desk, discussions and corrections with the whole class.
Rsources: Computer, optical devices (video and photographic camera), 3D scaled models, etc.


The average of the practical exercises marks – 1/3, the final test mark 2/3, with the requirement that the mark for the latter one is at least 5.


- Iulius Ionescu, The Perspective – a tool in design, Editura Universitară „Ion Mincu”, 2009 – support for the course;
- Mircea Enache și Iulius Ionescu, Descriptive geometry and Perspective, Ed. Didactică și Pedagogică București, 1983;
- Horia Teodoru, Perspective, vol. 1-2, Ed. de Stat pt. Literatură și Artă, 1958;
- Adrian Gheorghiu, The technique of drawing perspective, Ed. Tehnică, 1959.


The practical assignments for perspective are correlated with the computer based activity. You are allowed to redo only one assignment until the end of the semester. At the final exam, you have to present your portfolio and two further drawings made for the exam.